David C. Mowery is William A. & Betty H. Hasler Professor Emeritus of New Enterprise Development at the Walter A. Haas School of Business at University of California, Berkeley. Richard R. Nelson is George Blumenthal Professor of International and Public Affairs, Business, and Law at Columbia University. Bhaven N. Sampat is Associate in the Department of Health Policy and Management at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health. Arvids A. Ziedonis is a Visiting Scholar at the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.