William E. Scheuerman is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Pittsburgh. He is author of Between the Norm and Exception: The Frankfurt School and the Rule of Law (1994). Franz L. Neumann (1900–1954) was a labor lawyer and legal advisor to the German Social Democratic Party before emigrating to England and then the United States after Hitler's rise to power. He was Professor of Public Law at Columbia University at the time of his death. Otto Kirchheimer (1905–1965) was a lawyer and left-wing Social Democrat who defended Weimar Democracy during its waning hours. He fled to France and then the United States, where he taught at Wellesley, the New School, and Columbia University.